The gabion box is a basket separated by multiple stranded hexagonal woven galvanized or PVC coated welded mesh and has a rectangular box shape. These compartments are of equal size and consist of internal diaphragms. The compartments are filled with natural stone, and the partitions ensure minimal migration of the stone in the basket. In this way, even under abnormal conditions, the stone can be evenly distributed, and the strength of the container can be increased to keep it rectangular during the filling operation.
Flexibility: Flexibility is an important advantage of any gabion cage structure. The twisted hexagonal grid structure allows it to tolerate different settlements without breaking. This feature is especially important when the structure is in unstable soil conditions, or in areas where waves or water scouring can damage the toes of the structure and cause the structure to settle.
Durability: The gabion supports plant growth, provides a living coating for wire mesh and stones, and increases their durability. Generally speaking, wire mesh is required for the first few years of the service life of the structure; after that, the gaps between the stones are filled with soil, silt, and plant roots, which are the binder for the stones.
Strength: The steel wire Hexagonal Mesh has the strength and elasticity to withstand the forces generated by water and soil, and the water permeability of the gabion mesh allows it to absorb and dissipate a large amount of energy. This is obvious in coastal protection devices. After a large number of rigid structures fail, the Gabion structure is still effective. In addition, the twisted-pair hexagonal net will not fall apart during cutting.
Permeability: The gabion wall, through the combined action of drainage and soil retaining, precedes the water and stabilizes the slope, preventing the development of hydrostatic pressure behind the gabion wall. Drainage is done by gravity, as well as evaporation because the porous structure allows air to circulate through it. As plants grow inside the structure, transpiration helps to remove water from the backfill—a system that is more effective than the seepage holes in standard masonry walls.
Low cost: The gabion system is more economical than a rigid or semi-rigid structure for the following reasons:
It requires little maintenance.
Its installation does not require skilled workers, and it can be filled in on-site or nearby quarries,
It requires little or no basic preparation because the surface only needs to be fairly flat and smooth.
The stone cage is porous and does not require expensive drainage facilities.
Ecology: Gabion is an environmentally sensitive slope stabilization solution. It has already been mentioned that the stone fill is made of natural stone. The natural porosity allows the interaction between the ground and the groundwater level and also persuades the soil to deposit in the smaller gaps between the stone fills during drainage that again promotes the growth of vegetation.
Aesthetics: The discussion of gabion supporting vegetation; in some cases, the growth of vegetation is so strong that the gabion net structure is invisible and pleasing to the eye. Likewise, if extra effort is put into the construction process, gabion nets can create truly pleasing structures, with or without vegetation. Unlike other types of materials, such as a modular block wall, gabion stone will not change color due to drainage.